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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM

PROCEEDINGS

. OF THE

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM

VOLUME 63

WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1924

ADDITIONAL COPIES

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON, D.C.

AT

$1.25 PER COPY (Paper Covers)

ADVERTISEMENT

The scientific publications of the National Museum consist of two series—Proceedings and Bulletins.

The Proceedings, the first volume of which was issued in 1878, are intended primarily as a medium for the publication of original papers based on the collections of the National Museum, setting forth newly acquired facts in biology, anthropology, and geology derived there- from, or containing descriptions of new forms and revisions of lim- ited groups. A volume is issued annually or oftener for distribution to libraries and scientific establishments, and, in view of the impor- tance of the more prompt dissemination of new facts, a limited edition of each paper is printed in pamphlet form in advance. The dates at which these separate papers are published are recorded in the table of contents of the volume.

The present volume is the sixty-third of this series.

The Bulletin, publication of which was begun in 1875, is a series of more elaborate papers, issued separately, and, like the Proceedings, based chiefly on the collections of the National Museum.

A quarto form of the Bulletin, known as the ‘‘Special Bulletin,” has been adopted in a few instances in which a larger page was deemed indispensable.

Since 1902 the volumes of the series known as ‘‘ Contributions from the National Herbarium,” and containing papers relating to the botanical collections of the Museum, have been published as Bulletins.

WILLIAM DEC. RAVENEL, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary, in Charge of the United States National Museum. SEPTEMBER 15, 1924. III

4 / u Nal oe ena ¥ ' . yer Pann P Via A \ gts ri . © Set a = 4 2 x 2 § t j ty ; fs i A . b ; i } ig ii Gtiah a 1 : Bi) er i E f : : ME: P aM at y ¥ ' eer < ¥ ; 7 : by 2. ( i } * Z 1 mt . A ; é ~ . i Saye: ‘a @ ‘et

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ApricH, J. M. Two Asiatic Muscoid flies parasitic upon the so-called Japanese beetle. No. 2474, pp. 1-4. April 13, BUDE ee ee eee ee et eS a OS pO: CORP OUR RAEN.

New genus: Centeter. New species: Centeter cinerea.

—— and Ray T. Wesser. The North American species of parasitic two-winged flies belonging to the genus Phoro- cera and allied genera. No.2486, pp. 1-90. February 29, POZA Mahe Fy ieee! s ser brs ete BEES Bho Res

New species: Nemorilla insolens, Zenillia protuberans, Z. margi- nata, Z. angustivitta, Z. coquilletti, Z. valens, Z. coerulea, Z. formosa, Z. inflatipalpis, Z. crassiseta, Z. submissa, Z. reclinata, Phorocera virilis, P. cocciphila, P. divisa, P. complicata, P. hamata, P. imitator, P. indivisa, P. coccyx, P. subnitens, P. sulcata, P. specularis, P. pachypyga, P. setifrons, P. silvatica, P. pluriseriata, P. fuscimacula, P. reinhardi, P. texana, P. parviteres, P. xanthura, P. tenuiseta, P. unipilum, P. marginalis, P. halisidotae, P. festinans, P. levis, P. signata.

New subspecies: Zenillia blanda virilis.

Bran, Barton A. (See Fowler, Henry W.)--------------- CHAMBERLIN, RatpuH V. Descriptions of new American and Chinese spiders, with notes on other Chinese species. No. 2481, ppeil—38.», February, §),19240 5 Jovhoulgiue 3. naps

New genera: Anibontes, Graphomoa, Chinestela, Tetppus,

New species: Psechrus mimus, Parauximus austinensis, Gnaphosa suchuana, Argyrodes biclavis, Anibontes mimus, Bathyphantes erythroides, Graphomoa theridioides, Ceraticelus nubiliceps, Tetrag- natha conformans, T. sociella, T. plena, T. retinens T. cliens, Eucta chinensis, Leuwcauge retracta, L. veterascens, Nesticus al- teratus, N. suggerens, Argiope viabilior, A. aequior, Miranda zabonika, Aranea multiplicans, A. fratrella, A. pia, Chinestela gistt, Gasteracantha nabona, Philodromus amitinus, P. louisi- anus, Coelotes kulianganus, Dolomedes insurgens, D. chinesus, Sosippus mimus, Teippus lamprus, Lycosa huberti, L. acompa, L. episima, L. suprenans, Orinocosa oriens, Hyllus mimus, Den- dryphantes louisianus, Pellenes texanus.

CHANDLER, ASA C. Three new trematodes from Amphiuma means. No. 2471, pp. 1-7. April 28, 1923 t= _-.--_---- New genus: Megalodiscus.

New species: Cephalogonimus amphiumae, Telorchis stunkardi, Megalodiscus americanus

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VI TABLE OF CONTENTS

CocKkERELL, T. D. A. A fossil Cichlid fish from the Republic of Heit. No.2475, pp. 1-2. « Apa 2719234 ee

New species: Cichlasoma woodringi.

Some bees from Victoria, Mexico. No. 2476, pp. 45. Nopril 16, 4003.2 fe ep ap pe eee

New species: Megachile alopecura, Coelioxys toltecoides, Augochlora (Oxystoglossa) dimissa.

Datt, Wittram H. Additions and emendations to the United States National Museum Bulletin No. 112. No. 2478 ppt ie: aprib2 192s et. ANAT, Lk ER eee

Ewina, H. E. On the taxonomy, biology, and distribution of the biting lice of the family Gyropidae. No. 2489, pp. 1249... Mapoh st v19ga ti od eS

New genera: Protogyropus, Monogyropus, Allogyropus, Tetragy- ropus, Macrogyropus, Heterogyropus, Paragliricola.

New species: Protogyropus normalis, Monogyropus parvus, Gyropus pollicaris, G. latipollicaris, G. gracilipes, G. wetmorei, Tetragy- ropus setifer, T. aotophilus, Macrogyropus dentatus, Heterogyropus heteronychus, Paragliricola quadrisetosa, Gliricola distincta.

New subfamilies: Protogyropinae, Gyropinae, Gliricolinae.

Fouts, Ropert M. - Revision of the North American wasps of the subfamily Platygasterinae. No. 2484, pp. 1-145. June '30,.1924 2) 0 Te wee He Galt wae ke wis ot

New species: Hritrissomerus parvus, Platygaster fuscipennis, P. lampronota, P. websteri, P. shastensis, P. lucida, P. gahani, P. texana, P. marylandica, P. atrae, P. fumipennis, P. errans, P. pint, P. rohweri, P. relativa, P. variabilis, Sactogaster longiven- tris, S. mucronata, Leptacis pennsylvanica, L. pallipes, L. gahani, L. globata, L. bradleyi, L. aciculata.

New names: Platygaster confusa, P. linearis, P. columbiana, Lep- tacis ashmeadt.

Fow.er, Henry W., and Barton A. Bean. Descriptions of eighteen new species of fishes from the Wilkes Exploring

Expedition preserved in the United States National Museum.

No. 2488, pp.:1-27.....December 22, 1923 420-4 -oaclat=-cciee

New genera: Rasborella, Paralarimus.

New species: Harengula peruana, H. fijiense, Anchoviella mauii, A. salvatoris, Rasborella dubia, Hyporhamphus salvatoris, Urop- terygius fijiensis, Strongylura tahitiensis, S. auloceps, S. fijiense, Orthopristis rhabdotus, Sciaena dubia, Paralarimus patagonicus, Lepidaplois trotteri, Chromis cupreus, Gillellus australis, Salarias mcecullochi, Xystreurys ribeiroi.

New subgenera: Wilkesina, Lepthaemulon, Ctenosciaena.

1 Date of publication.

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GiwLery, JAMES WixiiAMs. Paleocene primates of the Fort Union, with discussion of relationships of Kocene primates. No. 2469, pp. 1-38: April:28; 1028 40%) cscs. cpsdrieie sed

New genera: Paromomys, Palaechthon, Elphidotarsius, Pronotho- dectes.

New species: Paromomys maturus, P. depressidens, Palaechthon alticuspis, P. minor, Elphidotarsius florencae, Tetonius rex, Pronothodectes matthewt.

Hay, Ortver P. Description of remains of Bison occiden- talis from Central Minnesota. No. 2473, pp. 1-8. May OS Fa chapels chttenld tag eal opera Gagne heir C2 Rist tin cpg]

Hroxiéxa, ALES. Catalogue of human crania in the United States National Museum collections. The Eskimo, Alaska and related Indians, North Eastern Asiatics. No. 2480, pp. 1-51. March 14, 1924? Mu eT esas Sere PAL ee

JORDAN, Davip Starr. Note on Icichthys lockingtoni Jor- dan and Gilbert, a pelagic fish from California. No. 2472, pps ls.) Sune, O25 Sis ers, te Awe eto. The Lu

KeELLoce, Remineton. A fossil porpoise from the Calvert formation of Maryland. No. 2482, pp. 1-39. March 26, MS ae Ae El ER NOTE ell NEA ue oye kA rd as ae

. Description of a new genus and species of whale- bone whale from the Calvert Cliffs, Maryland. No. 2483, ppatit. Pebruary 3, A022) oie ea ee se

New genus: Parietobalaena, New species: Parietobalaena palmert.

MarsHa.i, Witt1AmM B. New pearly fresh-water mussels from Mexico and Uruguay. No. 2485, pp. 1-4. January Sig COLE se a a gto Dae i ae ae

New species: Elliptio herrerae, Diplodon (Bulloideus?) perfragilis, D. podagrosus.

MeERRILL, GrorGE P. Recently found meteoric irons from Mesa Verde Park, Colorado, and Savannah, Tennessee. iNon.2487, poe le Marches gaan aire ee. Se eae es -

Mueseseck, C.F. W. A revision of the North American species of Ichneumon-flies belonging to the genus Meteorus Haliday. No. 2470, pp. 1-44. June 28,1923! 3 ___-.--

New species: Meteorus levis, M. maximus, M. reticulatus, M. angustipennis, M. fumipennis, M. tibialis, M. terebratus, M. hicoriae, M. autographae, M. arizonensis, M. acronyctae, M. euschausiae, M. datanae.

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Ratupun, Mary J. Fossil crabs from the Republic of Haiti. No. 2477:ppl=6))) April / 2809234. lo etal lo.

New species: Portunus (Portunus) haitensis.

SHANNON, Hart V. Crystallographic notes on Stephanite in a silver ore from Mexico. No. 2479, pp. 1-6. April 12, MO ie seg ee Bk Jo fe ee RN i ck = SS ea

Van DuzreE, M. C. Notes and descriptions of two-winged flies of the family Dolichopodidae from Alaska. No. 2490, pp. 1-lb.. Januamy 45.1924 8. . 26am aun Jets) . ee

New species: Diaphorus brevinervis, Campsicnemus calcaratus, C. americanus, Argyra ciliata, Porphyrops terminalis, P. borealis, P.

nudus, P. albibarba, Nothosympycnus cilifemoratus, Hydrophorus minimus.

Webern, Way, TF. “(See Aldrich... Mgjpssg tne oe ee ae

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PLATES

PALEOCENE PRIMATES OF THE FortT UNION, WITH DISCUSSION OF RELATIONSHIPS oF EOCENE PRIMATES

By James Williams Gidley Facing page

BO Wer, awe Gl CHUL DIM Apes cee ke ee a 38 Pee POMC E EA We OL CHEN OPUS BOR nc 9 ge es a 38 See CCUNUOMeAT]Y, ELIT AUCS 22.5 sire cee ee es a pe oe 38 eee WEL PAWA Ol. CALLY PrP bs a oo 24S Fe a ae a ae a cg 38 ». Coniparative series of pelves of mammials-_.. ~..-.-..--..---2--..-- 38 THREE NEW TREMATODES FROM AMPHIUMA MEANS By Asa C. Chandler 1-2. New trematodes from Amphiuma means_--_---------------------- 8

Note ON IcICHTHYS LOCKINGTONI JORDAN AND GILBERT, A PELAGIC FISH FROM CALIFORNIA

By David Starr Jordan 1. Icichthys lockingtoni Jordan and Gilbert. .........-.2..------------ 4 DESCRIPTION OF REMAINS OF BISON OCCIDENTALIS FROM CENTRAL MINNESOTA By Oliver P. Hay i 2) SKU Gt Bisom qevelentalisn Ber op. Basch eta ee se. Ake 8 A FossiL CICHLID FISH FROM THE ReEpuBLIC oF HAITI By T. D. A. Cockerell 1. A fossil Cichlid fish from the Republic of Haiti___________---------- 2 FossIL CRABS FROM THE ReEpusuLic oF Haiti By Mary J. Rathbun

innhoriunis hartensia and :Panopeus, Specticd--U2-- 9 ae en ae 6 2. Portunus haitensis, Parthenope, Zanthopsis, and Mithraz, species-- - --- 6

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AMERICAN AND CHINESE SPIDERS, WITH NOTES ON OTHER CHINESE SPECIES

By Ralph V. Chamberlin

1-7. New American and Chinese spiders___.._---------=--+---------- 38 Ix

x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

A FOSSIL PORPOISE FROM THE CALVERT FORMATION OF MARYLAND

By Remington Kellogg ae acing page

1. Dorsal and ventral views of skull of Zarhachis flagellator______------ 40 2. Lateral view of skull of Zarhachis flagellator__._._.._.......---------- 40 3. Dorsal and ventral views of mandibles of Zarhachis flagellator _ _-_---- 40 4, Lateral view of skull of Zarhachis flagellator. i. ~22_2_-___-___+_--- 40 5. Lateral view of skull of Platanista gangetica__=___ -__-_______-____- 40 6. Lateral view of skull of Platanista gangetica__._._._._..--__-----_----- 40 i. “iews of tympanic’ and periovie bones_ 22 3201222. oe ee 40 8. Views of tympanic bones (1—4) and dorsal view of atlas (5)_--__---- 40 9. Bones in the manus of Zarhachis flagellator__.__._._.---------------- 40 10. Vertebral column and ribs of Zarhachis flagellator__.--------------- 40 It Sternum, of Zarhkachis flageiiaton. = 2202 oy Soe es 40 12. Views of atlas.of Zarhachisfiagellator’) 2e0ite Vee ee 40 13. Views of dorsal vertebrae of Zarhachis flagellator_._...._...---------- 40 14. Posterior views of dorsal vertebrae of Zarhachis flagellator__________- 40 15. Anterior view of fourth lumbar vertebra of Zarhachis flagellator_____-- 40 VG. Views Of Mbs ol Zarhachts flagellator so! oo 2 ee ee ee ae ee 40 17. Views of posterior caudal vertebrae of Zarhachis flagellator_-_-__----- 40 18. Chevron bones and posterior caudal vertebrae__________---_------- 40

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF WHALEBONE WHALE FROM THE CALVERT CuIFFs OF MARYLAND

By Remington Kellogg

1. Dorsal view of skull of Parzetobalaena palmert_.__.._..-=.------.-_- 14 2. Posterior view of skull of Parietobalaena palmeri______-------------- 14 3. Lateral view of skull of Parietobalaena palmeri______--------------- 14 4. Ventral view of skull of Parietobalaena palmeri______--------------- 14 5. Views of right periotic of Parietobalaena palmeri_____--------------- 14 6. Views: of tiymipanie bones Ys B82 eile A a is ee ae 14

REVISION oF THE NortH AMERICAN WASPS OF THE SUBFAMILY PULATY- GASTERINAE

By Robert M. Fouts 1. Antennae of various speciesiotwiepiags 42 seo eee 139 NEW PEARLY FRESH-WATER MUSSELS FROM Mexico AND URrvUGUAY By William B. Marshall

1-2. New fresh-water mollusks from Mexico and Uruguay ---_---_------- Bog 3. New fresh=water mollusk from Uruguay. =... ek pe 4

RECENTLY FOUND METEORIC IRONS FROM Mesa VERDE Park, COLORADO, AND SAVANNAH, TENNESSEE

By George P. Merrill

1. Mesa Verde Park, Colorado, meteoric iron__.......-----------25--- 4 2-3. The Savannah; “Rennessee, meteoric ron = ee ee oe ee t

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XI

On THE Taxonomy, Brotogy, AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BITING LICE OF THE FAMILY GYROPIDAE By H. E. Ewing Facing page 1. Ventral views of the left tarsus of the anterior pair of legs of some of the differenbenecies On Gunomigde. 2. ee oa ee Ae 42

Notes AND DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO-WINGED FLIES OF THE Famity DOLIcH- OPODIDAE FROM ALASKA

By M. C. VanDuzee 1+ Dolichopod Mies fromiAlaska=s= 22 ee ees ee eet 16 TEXT FIGURES

PALEOCENE PRIMATES OF THE Fort UNION, WITH DISCUSSION OF RELATION= SHIPS OF HKOCENE PRIMATES

By James Williams Gidley

Page 1. Paromomys maturus. Portion of a right lower jaw carrying posterior : four cheek teeth. A, crown view of teeth; B, inner side view of jaw BTV EECHIN eRe Meee we) AN OR AN OD AY A elutes ol a re 4 2. Paromomys maturus. Portion of left maxillary with posterior four cheek teeth. A, palate view. B, outerside view. XX 4/1---------- 4 3. Paromomys depressidens. Portion of a left lower jaw carrying the three molares,, Crownview «foie le oe eee ee) Fey ne cote Ee alee ets mies 5 4, Palaechthon minor. <A series of three upper molars of the left side. SEAN gl ee BE Se eb Bo Pe bar ea _ bee rae iee il ated a

A REVISION OF THE NortTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF ICHNEUMON-FLIES BELONG- ING TO THE GENUS METEORUS HALIDAY

By C. F. W. Muesebeck

1. Wings of Meteorus hyphantriae Riley. Veins.—Anterior wing: AB’= costa; BC=stigma; CH’D=metacarpus; HKH/’=radius; GK’G’= cubitus; FJ’=medius; J’I’P=discoideus; PP’=subdiscoideus; UT’=submedius; T’U’=brachius; JJ’=basal vein; KK’=1st inter- cubitus; LL’=2d intercubitus; K’I’=recurrent vein; TT’= nervulus. Posterior wing: AJB=subcostella; HH’=radiella; GG’= cubitella; FJ’ =mediella; UT’ =submediella; T’U’=brachiella; JG= upper abscissa of basella; GJ’ =lower abscissa of basella; J’T’ =nerv- ellus. Cells— 2=radial cell; 3=cubital cells; 4=median cell; 5= discoidal cells; 6=submedian cell; 7—brachial cells; 8=anal cell; 11=costellan cell; 12=radiellan cell; 13=mediellan cell; 14= cubitellan cell; 15=submediellan cell; 16+ 18=discoidellan-+ brac- hiellan cells; 17=anellan cell. The lettering and numbering used are those employed by Rohwer and Gahan in their Horismology of the Hymenopterous Wing, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 18, 1916, pp.

XII LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page 2. A—venter, first abdominal segment of M. tibialis, showing ventral margins of the tergite. B—venter, first abdominal segment of M. communis. C—dorsum, first abdominal segment of M. com- munis, showing the pair of fossae on petiole. D—venter, first abdominal segment of M. indagator. E—venter, first abdominal segment of M. dimidiatus. F—venter, first abdominal segment of M. vulgaris. G—venter, first abdominal segment of M. hyphantriae. H—dorsum, first abdominal segment of M. hyphantriae, showing absence of fossac ONsperloles =. ssene aoees ate Lee ea 6

CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC NOTES ON STEPHANITE IN A SILVER ORE FROM MeExico

By Earl V. Shannon

1. Stephanite crystal 1 showing actual development_____.-_---------- 3 2. Stephanite crystal 2 with forms (225), (290), (8-10—0) showing actual Ge velopment. 0 Cy A ie eee ce nee id eee Smee ce eee te 4 3. Stephanite crystal 3 with forms (118), (8-10—-5) and (3-11—-3) showing actual develpoment2 oie 2 eye ee a ee 5 4. Polybasite crystal showing actual development_-_____..---------.-- 6 REVISION OF THE NorTH AMERICAN WASPS OF THE SUBFAMILY PLATYGASTERINAE By Robert M. Fouts 1. Amblyaspis californicus Ashmead. Abdomen of female------------- + 2. Fidiobia flavipes Ashmead. Antennae. a, of the female. 6, of the mallet. tra Se 2 aes eat ee ee ee eee Se 7 3. Fidiobia rugosifrons Crawford. Antennae of male. Scape not SEO WTA a tie NC er a TA A Sh ee epee Se 8 4. Platygaster aphidis Ashmead. Abdomen of male__---------------- 50 5. Platygaster americana (Ashmead). Abdomen of female_-_-_---------- 32 6. Platygaster solidaginis (Ashmead). Head of female, front view------ 66 7 Platygaster salicicola (Ashmead). Abdomen of female-_------------- aa 8. Platygaster atriplicis (Ashmead). Abdomen of female__-__---------- 79 9. Platygaster asynaptae (Ashmead). Antennae___--_---------------- 80 10. Platygaster asynaptae (Ashmead). Abdomen of female__----_------ 81

Tue NortH AMERICAN SPECIES OF PARASITIC TWO-WINGED FLIES BELONGING TO THE GENUS PHOROCERA AND ALLIED GENERA

By J. M. Aldrich and Ray T. Webber 1. Phorocera slossonae Townsend, male genitalia, much enlarged_------- 49

On THE TAxoNomy, BroLoay, AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BITING LICE OF THE FAMILY GYROPIDAE

By H. E. Ewing

1. Monogyropus longus. Leg II showing tarsus locked in the furrowed crotch of femoral tenaculum. Dotted lines show position of leg

whenvextendediie a ee Like isthe oh A ETE Te 5 2. To left, palpus of Protogyropus normalis; to right, palpus of Heter- OTUTOPUSINELETONYCRUSH =o ae ae, 2 ee ee Serena 8

3. Protogyropus normalis. Dorsal view of female X 90__-_---------- 9

Sel oe te

10.

13. 14. 15. 1G; Le: 18.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Monogyropus longus. Left posterior leg from below_-_-_-_----- Monogyropus parvus. Copulatory apparatus of male__-__-__- Gyropus ovalis. Dorsl view of head._-_-.--.---.-----------

Gyropus gracilipes. Posterior view of tarsus IIJ__________________- Gyropus wetmoreit. Posterior view of femur III__._______-_-_------

. Gyropus wetmorei. Sternal plates of female_____________-_- Tetragyropus setifer. Ventral view of base of femur ITT_---- . Tetragyropus aotophilus. Dorsal view of nymph, X 100__-_-_- 12.

Heterogyropus heteronychus. Dorsal view of female, X 90. (Last

two segments of each antenna wanting) ______________-_-------- Paragliricola quadrisetosa. Dorsal view of female X 100_____-_-_-- Paragliricola quadrisetosa. Outer chitinizations of hypopharynx_---- Gliricola porcelli. Outer chitinizations of hypopharynx__-__-__--_--

Gliricola distincta. Basal plate of female genital armature___ Gliricola porcelli. Left antenna from below___-_--_---------

Chart showing the geographical distribution of the Gyropidae

ney

f'%3 Uy 5 Une WATT (ORME SEAS = SES 1, ED : ; we { Js heat = Me we Sy é ; i "i 7 i x -

PALEOCENE PRIMATES OF THE FORT UNION, WITH DIS- CUSSION OF RELATIONSHIPS OF EOCENE PRIMATES.

By James Witiiams GIDLEY,

Assistant Curator, United States National Museum.

INTRODUCTION.

The first important contribution to the knowledge of Fort Union mammalian life was furnished by Dr. Earl Douglass and was based on a small lot of fragmentary material collected by him in the au- tumn of 1901 from a locality in Sweet Grass County, Montana, about 25 miles northeast of Bigtimber.'| The fauna described by Douglass indicated a horizon about equivalent in age to the Torrejon of New Mexico, but the presence of unfamilar forms, suggesting a different faunal phase, was recognized.

A few years later (1908 to 1911) this region was much more fully explored for fossil remains by parties of the United States Geological Survey and the United States National Museum. Working under the direction of Dr. T. W. Stanton, Mr. Albert C. Silberling, an ener- yetic and successful collector, procured the first specimens in the winter and spring of 1908, continuing operations intermittently through the following years until the early spring of 1911. The present writer visited the field in 1908 and again in 1909, securing a considerable amount of good material. The net result of this com- bined field work is the splendid collection now in the National Museum, consisting of about 1,000 specimens, for the most part upper and lower jaw portions carrying teeth in varying numbers, but including also several characteristic foot and limb bones.

Although nearly 10 years have passed since the last of this collec- tion was received, it was not until late in the summer of 1920 that the preparation of the material for study was completed. This task was especially tedious and difficult owing to the small size and exceed- ingly fragile condition of most of the specimens, it being necessary

1 Douglass, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., vol. 41, No. 176, 1902, pp. 216-224, pl. 29; Annals Carnegie Mus., vol. 5, No. 2, 1908, pp. 11-26, pls. 1, 2.

No. 2469.—PROCEEDINGS U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM, VOL. 63, ART. I. 5596—24—Proc.N.M.vol.63—— 1 it

2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, > VOL. 63.

to use a binocular microscope for much of the preparatory work as well as for detailed study of the smaller forms. The collection, rep- resenting as it does such a varied fauna, is proving to be most inter- esting and important, not only in increasing our none too adequate knowledge of earlier Tertiary mammalian life, but in its promise of aid in solving some of the puzzling correlation problems of Paleocene horizons in various localities of the Rocky Mountain region. At least 40 species, most of them new to science, distributed among not less than 15 families, and 6 or possibly 7 orders, are represented. A few of the new species have been described by the present writer in short papers,? but now that the whole collection is available for de- tailed comparison, it is proposed to continue the study by orders, or great groups, the whole eventually to be combined in a single mono- graph. The Primates form the basis for the present communication.

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES.

Order PRIMATES.

Up to the present time true Primates of unquestioned standing have not been reported in America from beds older than Lower Eocene, the Puerco and Torrejon having yielded nothing that could be re- ferred with certainty to this order. However, it has been recognized that some, at least, of the Eocene Primates show such marked degrees of advance in development as to suggest a beginning much earlier than the age of the beds (Wasatch and Bridger) in which they have heretofore been found. It is not surprising, therefore, although of the greatest interest, that remains of true Primates are actually found to occur among the abundant faunas of the Fort Union Paleocene. Some of these seem to show undoubted relationship to the already known Primates of the Eocene, while others may represent hitherto unknown groups. All, however, are in general more primitive in type than their supposed relatives of later date, although their stage of development is sufficiently advanced to indicate beyond question that the greater groups, or families, to which they belong were almost as definitely marked out at this earlier period as in the Eocene, and lends abundant support to the suggestion that we must look to for- mations very much older than the beginning of the Tertiary for evi- dence, if ever found, of the much-sought root group, or beginning, of the Primates as a distinct order.

2 Notes on the fossil mammalian genus Ptilodus, with descriptions of new species. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 36, 1909, pp. 611-626.

An extinct marsupial from the Fort Union with notes on the Myrmecobidae and other families of this group. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 48, 1915, pp. 395-402, pl. 23.

Notice of a new Paleocene mammal, a possible relative of the Titanotheres. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 52, 1917, pp. 431-435, pl. 36.

New species of Claenodonts from the Fort Union (Basal Eocene) of Montana. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. His., vol. 41, 1919, pp. 541-555.

ART. 1. PRIMATES OF THE FORT UNION—GIDLEY. 3

Family TARSITDAE

This family, as defined by Matthew,’ seems to be represented in the Fort Union by six new species representing four genera, three of which are new. These suggest more or less close relationships to the known Eocene members of the group, but do not fall within the definition of any of the described genera of these later beds.

PAROMOMYS, new genus.

Genoiype-—Paromomys maturus, new species.

c ¢ ; Diagnosis —Dental formula: I ———, ¢ E p a m 2°: Species of 1 or 2 3 3

small size with anterior tooth modifications in general as in the Omomids; that is, with unreduced canine and enlarged median incisor; but with molar developments suggesting Notharctus or Pelycodus in that they have a lengthened and broadened heel in m,, and the trigonid is composed principally of the subequal protoconid and metaconid which tend to unite at the summits to form cross Hee trigonids relatively high and distinctly directed forward.

Other principal fora are total absence of internal cingula on the upper molars, the complete continuation of the hypocone ridge to the summit of the protocone, and the relatively greater height of the trigonids of the lower molars. These last two characters seem to be directly associated with and to precede the stage in which a true hypocone is developed. In all forms of this group the development of a true hypocene is accompanied by a corresponding depression of the trigonid.

PARCMOMYS MATURUS, new species.

Figure 1, and Plate 1, figure 3; also Figure 2, and Plate 2, figures 2 and 3.

Type.—Portion of a right lower jaw carrying four teeth, p, to m, and alveoli for the anterior teeth. (Cat. No. 9473, U.S.N.M. Coll.)

Locality —“ Gidley Quarry,’ sec. 23, R. 15 E., T. 5 N., Sweetgrass County, Montana.

Horizon.—Near top of Fort Union “No. 2,” of Silberling (Paleo- cene Tertiary as published by Calvert and Stone). This level or stra- tum is about 1,300 feet above the base of the beds, which here lie apparently conformably on the Lance formation, and is more than 4,000 feet below the top of the Fort Union in this section.

The species is represented in the collection by portions of upper and lower jaws and teeth of more than 40 individuals, all from the ‘Gidley Quarry.”’

3Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 34, 1915, p. 445.

4This name was given by Mr. Silberling in his field notes to designate this locality, and is here used or convenience.

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Specific characters—M, to m, = 9.4 mm.; c (posterior border of alveolus) to m,=17.2 mm. Single enlarged and slightly compressed

Fic. 1.—PAROMOMYS MATURUS.

PORTION OF A RIGHT LOWER JAW CARRYING POSTERIOR FOUR

CHEEK TEETH. A, CROWN VIEW OF TEETH; B, INNER SIDE VIEW OF JAW AND THETH. X4/1.

Cat. No. 9473.

incisorasin Tetonius, but with canines enlarged also asin Omomys; p,and p; much smaller than p,; paraconids internally placed and in m, and m,

nearly connate with the metaconid, their sum- mits often disappearing withslight wear; m, nar- rowest but longest of molar series, with wide bicuspid heel asin Noth- arctus nunienus (Cope).

PAROMOMYS DEPRESSI- DENS, new species.

Figure 3, and Plate 3, Fig- ure 7.

Type.—Portion of a right maxillary carry- ing four teeth, p‘ to m°. (Cat. No. 9546, U.S. N.M.Coll.) Represented in the collection by sev- eral other specimens in- cluding both upper and lower jaw portions.

Locality and horizon.— Same as P. maturus.

Fic. 2—PAROMOMYS MATURUS. PORTION OF LEFT MAXILLARY WITH POSTERIOR FOUR CHEEK TEETH. A, PALATE VIEW. B, OUTER SIDE VIEW. X 4/1. Cat. No. 9540.

Specific characters —About one-fourth smaller than P. maturus. P* to m’ = 7.3 mm., m' tom? = 5.5mm. Cusps and lophs depressed

arr. 1. PRIMATES OF THE FORT UNION—GIDLEY. 5

and basins shallow; protoconules present but less well defined than P. maturus; metaconules absent.

This species further differs from P. maturus in the slightly less marked grooving of the inner wall of the protocone-hypocone shelf and the relatively narrower proportions of p*. Differences correlated with those just pointed out for the upper teeth are effected in the lower teeth of the specimens here associated with this species, though in somewhat less degree. The paraconids are weakly developed, being almost vestigal on m, and m,, and are closely connate with the meta- conids, while the trigonids are more depressed although having the same degree of forward slope as those of P. maturus.

Several upper-jaw portions carrying teeth which conform very exactly in size and general modifications with those of the lower series seem to leave little question that they represent the same species. One of these, a portion of a left maxillary carrying four teeth, p, to (fig. 2, Cat. No. 9540), shows the following characters: Molars wider than long with three main cusps and two intermediary cus- pules, but, while there is no true hypocone, the base of the crown is subquadrangular owing to a backward expansion of the base of the protocone. This expanded area is distinctly marked off from the protocone on the lingual side by a shallow, vertically directed depres- sion, giving the impression of the birth of a hypocone. A low but well-defined ridge, continuing from the posterior cingulum, slopes abruptly upward to the summit of the protocone, thus forming a second shal- low posteriorly placed basin of almost equal size and form with the one lying |, nomomys DEPRESSIDENS. POR. between the median conules., ‘Thus the: |: soxonanurs Lower iw chknvinesare ridge and cineulum function almost..as,,.., 2! MOLARs. . CROWN view. x. 4/l.

: : Cat. No. 9485.

a hypocone and as already implied

there is the suggestion of an early budding off of a mass from the posterior flank of the protocone to form such a cusp. The modifica- tion just described is more pronounced in m!' and m’, but is also clearly indicated in m°, and p‘ has a well-developed posterior cingu- lum and ridge forming with the inner cusp (protocone) a similar basin on this tooth. P* also has an incipient metacone placed well down near the posterior extremity of the external cingulum. P* and p’, as indicated by their alveoli, are much smaller than p‘ and are primi- tively two-rooted; that is, the roots are antero-posteriorly placed. The posterior border of the alveolus for the canine indicates a tooth of moderate size; upper incisors not known. Length of upper cheek- tooth series from posterior border of canine alveolus to posterior bor- der of m’=15.5 mm.; p‘ to m’=10.3 mm. Length of molar series = 7.8mm. The infraorbital foramen and a short sector of the orbital rim are preserved in this specimen, the latter indicating that the or-

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bit was large but relatively not so forward in position as in Tetonius. The infraorbital foramen is large, narrow oval in outline, and placed directly above the junction of p* and p*.

PALAECHTHON, new genius.

Genoty pe.—Palaechthon alticuspis, new species.

2 2 p

Diagnosis.—Dental formula: I ——_, c-, ——_, m 3. Lower Por2 th. 2 ers 3

incisors reduced to a single enlarged pair, asin Paromomys. Canines unreduced, premolars three to two; molars differing from those of Paromomys in having relatively shorter basins, and the heel of m, is less widened posteriorly; there is no connecting ridge between the subequal proto and meta conids, and the much-reduced but distinct paraconids of m, and m, are not connate with the metaconids, but are placed well down on the anterior borders of these cusps. The upper dentition is only known from the molar series. These teeth much resemble the corresponding ones of Paromomys but may be distinguished by their less expanded inner bases and in consequence more nearly trigonate form. The tendency to division of the lingual wall of the protocone, so characteristic of Paromomys, slightly indi- cated in m?, but is not present in the other molars.

PALAECHTHON ALTICUSPIS, new species. Plate 1, Figure 1.

Type—Portion of a right lower jaw carrying five teeth, p, to m,. Collected by A. C. Silberling. (Cat. No. 9532, U.S.N.M. Coll.) Represented in the collection by other specimens including upper jaws.

Locality and horizon.—Same as Paromomys maturus.

Specific characters.—Slightly smaller than Paromomys depressidens. P, to m,=9 mm., posterior border of canine to m, (estimated) = 11.5 mm. Premolars three, the anterior two reduced and simple; trigo- nids of molars relatively higher and less forwardly directed than in the Paromomys species; cusps of the trigonids very distinct, with deep notches between the subequal protoconid and metaconid, and with small paraconids on all of the molars depressed well below the summit of the metaconid. The heel of m, is relatively narrower and is not distinctly biscusped, and the talonid basins of all the molars are distinctly deeper than in the other species. These basins, how- ever, are almost entirely open on the lingual side, there being but a low and deeply notched ridge connecting the entoconid with the metaconid. In Paromomys this ridge is nearly as high as the outer border of the basin. P, of P. alticuspis is more progressive than in the species of Paromomys, it having a well-developed though short heel and a rudimentary but distinct metaconid.

ART. 1. PRIMATES OF THE FORT UNION—GIDLEY. q

The upper molars referred to this species show the following char- acters: Cusps in general moderately high, median cuspules conspicu- ous; protocones relatively high and pointed. They differ also from those of the species of Paromomys in having the inner posterior por- tion of the base relatively less expanded and the posterior face of the protocone more steeply sloping. The area bounded by the meta- loph, the angulated ridge formed by the posterior basal cingulum, and the continuing ridge from the apex of the protocone, is less dis- tinctly basined. Measurements of upper molars—m*' to m*=5 mm.

PALAECHTHON MINOR, new species.

Plate 4, Figure 1.

Type.—Greater portion of a right lower jaw carrying four teeth, p, to m,, and the alveoli for p, and apparently for a canine and an incisor. (Cat. No. 9639, U.S.N.M. Coll.) Collected by A. C. Silber- ling. The species is also represented in the collection by a few other specimens, including two upper jaw portions.

Locality and horizon.—Same as for Paromomys maturus.

Specific characters—P, to m,=5.3 mm.; m, to m,;=4.3 mm. About one-third smaller than P. alticuspis, with apparently a reduc- tion of premolars to two instead of three, but with canine of moder- ate size and an enlarged incisor as in the species described above.

This is by far the smallest species of the Paromomys-Palaechthon group, and while conforming in general characters with the others, it differs in so many details that its reference here is only provisional. Unfortunately all the jaws in the collection representing this species either have the anterior portion wanting or are broken in that region insuch awayasto j.. 4 pay obscure the modifications that have taken place in the xcarson an- anterior teeth. It is certain, however, that the enlarged = XO™ “SEE incisor was laterally compressed and was decidedly more verzr wo- procumbent than in other species of the group, and that [ooo P2, aS well as p,, is wanting. P, is reduced about as x4/I. Car. in the other species, but p, is a high cusped, very “°*” much shortened tooth which, except for its shorter heel, more nearly resembles the corresponding tooth in species of Nothodectes. The lower molars closely resemble those of P. alticuspis, both in the relative height of the trigonids and the distinctness and position of the paraconids. M,, however, differs from that of P. alticuspis in having a narrow, single-cusped heel.

A series of three upper molars of the left side (Cat. No. 9590) and a fragment of a left maxillary carrying m', m? (broken), and the alveoli of m* (Cat. No. 9595), seems to be properly referable to this species. These teeth, more than the lower ones described, pre- sent the general characteristics of the genus, differing from those of

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P. alticuspis only in being proportionately wider, and in having the summit of the somewhat higher protocone relatively more nearly approached to the paracone.

Most of the differences noted above suggest for the species just de- scribed a slightly different line, or direction, of development than is indicated in P. alticuspis. It is possible, therefore, that more com- plete materials may prove that these two species do not form a natural generic group. However, for the present they may be treated as such.

RELATIONSHIPS OF THE GENERA PAROMOMYS AND PALAECHTHON.

In the species of genera just described, the molar teeth seem in certain respects to suggest relationship to the Notharctidae. ‘This is especially true of the modifications of m, and the position and mode of progressive disappearance of the paraconid in all the molars of the Paromomys group. Also there is a significant resemblance in the form and manner of development on the trigonids of the lower molars of an anterior ridge or shelf which takes over the function of the paraconid. This adaptive feature is directly associated with the development in the upper molars of a posterior basal expansion of the protocone, and the forming of a posterior basin, as already de- scribed (p. 5). This is similar to the condition observed in the species of Pelycodus which have not yet arrived at the stage where the true hypocone appears. It is also a feature of Phenacolemur of the Apatemyidae. In fact, this peculiar development of the upper and lower cheek teeth, apparently constitutes a distinctively primate characteristic, which, while not found in all families of the order, seems to have been repeated over and over again, with slight vari- ations, in several related or unrelated groups, and, so far as I am aware, is not found in any other order of mammals. (This is, of course, assuming that the Plesiadapidae are true Primates.) It therefore follows that the apparent likeness of Paromomys to the Notharctidae, suggested by similarities of the molar teeth, may or may not denote relationship to this group and seems to be more than outweighed by the important differences observed in the mod- ifications of the anterior teeth. Thus the reduction in Paromomys and Palaechthon of the premolar series to three or two, and the more advanced specialization and enlargement of a single pair of incisors in the lower jaws are far more important features than the molar resemblance, and seem to preclude the possibility of a near or at least ancestral affinity of the group to the Notharctinae. Also in this group the orbit apparently is of the enlarged type as in the Tarsiidae.

The molars of this group, in some respects also resemble those of the Nothodectids. However, the very marked difference of modifica-

art. 1. PRIMATES OF THE FORT UNION—GIDLEY. 9

tions observed in the last upper premolar, especially, and the differ- ent line of specialization indicated in the anterior teeth of the lower jaw (namely the presence in paromomys of a well-developed canine, which tooth is entirely wanting in Nothodectes) suggest that the re- lationship of these two groups is not particularly close, although possibly as close as that existing between the Omomids and Noth- arctids.

Comparing the Paromomys-Palaechthon species with the Omomys- Hemiacodon species, there is a striking similarity in the general modi- fications of the anterior teeth of the lower jaws, and it is this feature which has suggested the reference of the Paleocene genera to the Tarsiidae, as that family has been